FEBRUARY:DAY 46-52 CAUSES OF CANCER

DAY 46 OF 365

NCDS 365 (35)

UNDERSTANDING CANCER CAUSES!
Cancer is a disease caused when cells divide uncontrollably and spread into surrounding tissues.Cancer is caused by changes (mutations) to the DNA within cells.

Cancer refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. Cancer often has the ability to spread throughout your body

The DNA inside a cell is packaged into a large number of individual genes, each of which contains a set of instructions telling the cell what functions to perform, as well as how to grow and divide. Errors in the instructions can cause the cell to stop its normal function and may allow a cell to become cancerous.

Day 47 of 365

NCDS 365 (36)

WHAT DO GENE MUTATIONS DO?

in day 46 we talked about what actually causes cancer and we mentioned, genes and gene mutations, so what do these have to do with cancer?
A gene mutation can instruct a healthy cell to:

Allow rapid growth. A gene mutation can tell a cell to grow and divide more rapidly. This creates many new cells that all have that same mutation.

Fail to stop uncontrolled cell growth. Normal cells know when to stop growing so that you have just the right number of each type of cell. Cancer cells lose the controls (tumor suppressor genes) that tell them when to stop growing. A mutation in a tumor suppressor gene allows cancer cells to continue growing and accumulating.

Make mistakes when repairing DNA errors. DNA repair genes look for errors in a cell’s DNA and make corrections. A mutation in a DNA repair gene may mean that other errors aren’t corrected, leading cells to become cancerous.

These mutations are the most common ones found in cancer. But many other gene mutations can contribute to causing cancer.

DAY 48 OF 365

NCDS 365 (37)

GENE INTERACTION & CANCER .
we are going very slowly with cancer in order for us to really understand what causes cancer. In the past 2 days we have said cancer is when cells multiply uncontrollably! This multiplication is caused by gene mutations ,a gene is the substance that we inherit from our parents to determine certain characteristics and behaviour. When these substance changes, that’s what we call gene mutation. Now that everybody has genes in them how do they interact? If someone in your family or your parent has cancer and they pass the cancer gene to you? What does this mean?
Find out below!
How do gene mutations interact with each other?

The gene mutations you’re born with and those that you acquire throughout your life work together to cause cancer.

For instance, if you’ve inherited a genetic mutation that predisposes you to cancer, that doesn’t mean you’re certain to get cancer. Instead, you may need one or more other gene mutations to cause cancer. Your inherited gene mutation could make you more likely than other people to develop cancer when exposed to a certain cancer-causing substance.

It’s not clear just how many mutations must accumulate for cancer to form. It’s likely that this varies among cancer types.

DAY 49 of 365

NCDS 365 (38)

WHAT PUTS YOU AT RISK FOR CANCER?
Alcohol and Cancer
Drinking alcohol raises your risk of getting six kinds of cancer. All types of alcoholic drinks are linked with cancer. The more you drink, the higher your cancer risk.

HPV and Cancer
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found to be associated with several kinds of cancer: cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal (back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils). Tobacco and Cancer
Smoking tobacco products causes almost nine of every 10 cases of lung cancer, and also can cause cancer almost anywhere in your body.

Family Health History and Cancer
Telling your doctor about your family health history is a first step to find out if you may have a higher cancer risk. It will help you and your doctor decide what tests you need, when to start, and how often to be tested.

DAY 50 OF 365

NCDS 365 (39)

HPV AND CANCER!
what’s the connection?
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. Most sexually active women and men will be infected at some point in their lives and some may be repeatedly infected.

The peak time for acquiring infection for both women and men is shortly after becoming sexually active. HPV is sexually transmitted, but penetrative sex is not required for transmission. Skin-to-skin genital contact is a well-recognized mode of transmission.

There are many types of HPV, and many do not cause problems. HPV infections usually clear up without any intervention within a few months after acquisition, and about 90% clear within 2 years. A small proportion of infections with certain types of HPV can persist and progress to cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer is by far the most common HPV-related disease. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer can be attributable to HPV infection.

The infection with certain HPV types also causes a proportion of cancers of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and oropharynx, which are preventable using similar primary prevention strategies as those for cervical cancer.

Day 51 of 365

 

NCDS 365 (40)

HOW HPV INFECTION LEADS TO CERVICAL CANCER

Although most HPV infections clear up on their own and most pre-cancerous lesions resolve spontaneously, there is a risk for all women that HPV infection may become chronic and pre-cancerous lesions progress to invasive cervical cancer.

It takes 15 to 20 years for cervical cancer to develop in women with normal immune systems. It can take only 5 to 10 years in women with weakened immune systems, such as those with untreated HIV infection.

DAY 52 of 365

NCDS 365 (41)

RISK FACTORS FOR HPV PERSISTENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF CERVICAL CANCER

-HPV type – its oncogenicity or cancer-causing strength;

-immune status – people who are immunocompromised, such as those living with HIV, are more likely to have persistent HPV infections and a more rapid progression to pre-cancer and cancer;

– coinfection with other sexually transmitted agents, such as those that cause herpes simplex, chlamydia and gonorrhoea;

-parity (number of babies born) and young age at first birth; -tobacco smoking

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