Day 213 of 365 August is for Kidney Diseases and transplants

The Growing Burden of Kidney Disease
Kidney disease contributes significantly to the global burden of disease; chronic kidney disease (CKD) now ranks 19th highest cause of death worldwide—an 82 percent increase since 1990. And in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the annual death rate attributed to CKD is growing at more than five percent per year. Currently, 80 percent of people with CKD live in LMICs.

However, despite these striking statistics, kidney disease is given relatively low priority within the public health response to the growing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in LMICs and this is why this August we will dedicate the month to educate you on this serious Non Communicable Disease.


Day 214 of 365 What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. When kidney disease progresses, it may eventually lead to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.


Day 215 of 365 The Facts About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

-Early detection can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure.
-Heart disease is the major cause of death for all people with CKD.
-Hypertension causes CKD and CKD causes hypertension.
-Persistent proteinuria (protein in the urine) means CKD is present.
-High risk groups include those with diabetes, hypertension and family history of kidney failure.
-African Americans, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, American Indians and Seniors are at increased risk.
-Two simple tests can detect CKD: blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine.


Day 216 of 365 Disease burden of Chronic Kidney disease

Chronic Kidney Disease is an enormous public health issue, the tide of which continues to inexorably rise. In the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, kidney disease was the 12th most common cause of death, accounting for 1.1 million deaths worldwide. Overall CKD mortality has increased by 31.7% over the last 10 years, making it one of the fastest rising major causes of death, alongside diabetes and dementia. In the same study, CKD ranked as the 17th leading cause of global years lost of life, an 18.4% increase since 2005, and the third largest increase of any major cause of death.


Day 217 of 365 Chronic Kidney Disease burden in LMICs

The rising burden of Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately impacts low-income and middle-income countries where growth in obesity and diabetes is greatest. The hard outcomes of CKD, namely premature cardiovascular death or progression to end-stage kidney disease, are more likely to occur in people with CKD in India than in North America due to inadequate risk factor management, for example treatment with ACE inhibitors and/or oral hypoglycaemic agents. Latin America has the highest Chronic Kidney Disease death rate in the world. For those who reach end-stage kidney disease, dire consequences await them, with serious global inequities in the availability of renal replacement therapy, primarily due to cost.


Day 218 of 365 What causes Chronic Kidney disease?

The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure, which are responsible for up to two-thirds of the cases. Diabetes happens when your blood sugar is too high, causing damage to many organs in your body, including the kidneys and heart, as well as blood vessels, nerves and eyes. High blood pressure, or hypertension, occurs when the pressure of your blood against the walls of your blood vessels increases. If uncontrolled, or poorly controlled, high blood pressure can be a leading cause of heart attacks, strokes and chronic kidney disease. Also, chronic kidney disease can cause high blood pressure.


Day 219 of 365 Other conditions that affect the kidneys

-Glomerulonephritis, a group of diseases that cause inflammation and damage to the kidney’s filtering units. These disorders are the third most common type of kidney disease.
-Inherited diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease, which causes large cysts to form in the kidneys and damage the surrounding tissue.
-Malformations that occur as a baby develops in its mother’s womb. For example, a narrowing may occur that prevents normal outflow of urine and causes urine to flow back up to the kidney. This causes infections and may damage the kidneys.
-Lupus and other diseases that affect the body’s immune system.
-Obstructions caused by problems like kidney stones, tumors or an enlarged prostate gland in men.
-Repeated urinary infections.


Day 220 of 365 symptoms of Chronic Kidney disease

Most people may not have any severe symptoms until their kidney disease is advanced. However, you may notice that you:

-feel more tired and have -less energy
-have trouble concentrating
-have a poor appetite
-have trouble sleeping
-have muscle cramping at night
-have swollen feet and ankles
-have puffiness around your eyes, especially in the morning
-have dry, itchy skin
-need to urinate more often, especially at night.


Published by Stephen Ogweno

a global health practitioner, NCD advocate and mHealth Innovator

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