NCDs 365 day 168-174-UNDERSTANDING TYPES OF DIABETES

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DAY 168: Causes of Type 1 Diabetes.

The body’s immune system is responsible for fighting off foreign invaders, like harmful viruses and bacteria. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakes the body’s own healthy cells for foreign invaders. The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. After these beta cells are destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin leading to type 1 diabetes .

Researchers don’t know why the immune system attacks the body’s own cells. It may have something to do with genetic and environmental factors, like exposure to viruses. Research is ongoing.

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Day 169 of 365: RISK FACTORS ATTRIBUTED WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES

You are more likely to get type 1 diabetes if you are child or teenager
If your parent or sibling has the condition or you carry certain genes that are linked to the disease.
Some Environments increase your risk. Healthy environments can be handled through local and national advocacy. For example, to cut availability of processed foods and soft drinks.

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Day 170 of 365: UNDERSTANDING TYPE 2 DIABETES

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose) — an important source of fuel for your body.

With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels.

Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but today more children are being diagnosed with the disorder, probably due to the rise in childhood obesity. There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disease. If diet and exercise aren’t enough to manage your blood sugar well, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

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Day 171 of 365: RISK FACTORS TO TYPE 2 DIABETES

Factors that may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes include:

Weight. Being overweight is a main risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, you don’t have to be overweight to develop type 2 diabetes.
Fat distribution. If you store fat mainly in the abdomen, you have a greater risk of type 2 diabetes than if you store fat elsewhere, such as in your hips and thighs. Your risk of type 2 diabetes rises if you’re a man with a waist circumference above 40 inches (101.6 centimeters) or a woman with a waist that’s greater than 35 inches (88.9 centimeters).
Inactivity. The less active you are, the greater your risk of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses up glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
Family history. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if your parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.
Race. Although it’s unclear why, people of certain races — including black, Hispanic, American Indian and Asian-American people — are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than white people are.
Age. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after age 45. That’s probably because people tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight as they age. But type 2 diabetes is also increasing dramatically among children, adolescents and younger adults.
Prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Left untreated, prediabetes often progresses to type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes. If you developed gestational diabetes when you were pregnant, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. If you gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms), you’re also at risk of type 2 diabetes.

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Day 172 of 365: WHAT IS GESTATIONAL DIABETES?

Most pregnant women get tested for gestational diabetes at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. Most of the time, it can be controlled and treated during pregnancy. If it is not treated, it can cause serious problems to the mother and baby.
Gestational diabetes can cause pregnancy complications such as Cesarean birth, perinatal depression (depression is a medical condition that causes feelings of sadness and a loss of interest in the things you like to do. It needs to be treated.) that happens during pregnancy, Premature birth which happens to be birth before 37 weeks of pregnancy, the baby can die in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

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Day 173 of 365 RISK FACTORS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES

Some women have a greater risk of gestational diabetes. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include the following:

Overweight and obesity.
A lack of physical activity.
Previous gestational diabetes or prediabetes.
Polycystic ovary syndrome.
Diabetes in an immediate family member.
Previously delivering a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4.1 kilograms).
Nonwhite race — Women who are black, American Indian, Asian American and Pacific Islander and those of Hispanic descent have a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes.

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Day 174 of 365: WHAT CAUSES GESTATIONAL DIABETES

During pregnancy, your body makes more hormones and goes through other changes such as weight gain. These changes cause the body’s cells to use insulin less effectively, a condition called insulin resistance.
All pregnant women have insulin resistance during pregnancy and some women have insulin resistance before they get pregnant. They start pregnancy with an increased need for insulin and are more likely to have gestational diabetes.

 

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